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Three parallel pipes connected at the two ends have flow-rates $Q_1$, $Q_2$ and $Q_3$ respectively, and the corresponding frictional head losses are $h_{L1}$, $h_{L2}$ and $h_{L3}$ respectively. The correct expressions for total flow rate $(Q)$ and frictional head loss across the two ends ($h_L$) are

  1. $Q = Q_1 + Q_2 + Q_3; h_L = h_{L1} + h_{L2} + h_{L3}$
  2. $Q = Q_1 + Q_2 + Q_3; h_L = h_{L1} = h_{L2} = h_{L3}$
  3. $Q = Q_1 = Q_2 = Q_3; h_L = h_{L1} + h_{L2} + h_{L3}$
  4. $Q = Q_1 = Q_2 = Q_3; h_L = h_{L1} = h_{L2} = h_{L3}$
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