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For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe of diameter $D$, neglecting gravity effects, the pressure drop $\Delta p$  over a length $L$ and the wall shear stress $\tau _\omega$ are related by

  1. $\tau _\omega =\dfrac{\Delta pD}{4L} \\$
  2. $\tau _\omega =\dfrac{\Delta pD^2}{4L^2} \\$
  3. $\tau _\omega =\dfrac{\Delta pD}{2L} \\$
  4. $\tau _\omega =\dfrac{4\Delta p L}{D}$
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