# GATE Mechanical 2014 Set 3 | Question: 23

Cutting tool is much harder than the workpiece. Yet the tool wears out during the tool-work interaction, because

1. extra hardness is imparted to the workpiece due to coolant used
2. oxide layers on the workpiece surface impart extra hardness to it
3. extra hardness is imparted to the workpiece due to severe rate of strain
4. vibration is induced in the machine tool

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In orthogonal turning of a bar of $100$ $mm$ diameter with a feed of $0.25$ $mm$/$rev$, depth of cut of $4$ $mm$ and cutting velocity of $90$ $m$/$min$, it is observed that the main (tangential) cutting force is perpendicular to the friction force acting at the ... (tangential) cutting force is $1500$ $N$. The normal force acting at the chip-tool interface in $N$ is $1000$ $1500$ $2000$ $2500$
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